Tashkent, 15 January 2022 (TDI): Tashkent organized a solemn march that had the participation of military personnel from ministries and agencies of the Armed Forces, on 14 January. Moreover, the occasion was to celebrate the establishment of the Armed Forces of Uzbekistan.
DEFENDER OF THE MOTHERLAND DAY CELEBRATIONS
The occasion was the 30th anniversary of the formation of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan; and the Defender of Motherland Day. The soldiers marched a distance of 3,400 meters in combat formation.
This is a campaign by soldiers and officers of the principles of a healthy lifestyle among the general public; and also is a demonstration of the courage and the fighting spirit of the defenders of the Motherland.
The duty to defend and protect the Motherland belongs to every citizen. All of the Uzbek citizens contribute in some sense to the defense of the country, its further development, and their mutual prosperity.
But is the army members, who are the true defenders of the country, and the keepers of the peace. Furthermore, it is important to mention that as long as a country has its military; peace and prosperity reign in our homes without worries.
The participants of the festive military march were solemnly met by their parents and children. Moreover, there were representatives of the general public at Tashkent’s Palace of Arts “Friendship of Peoples”.
The Palace also held an exhibition of military equipment. The Uzbeks also know this day as the day of the Uzbek Army or Day of Defenders of the Native Land. The reason for the establishment of this National Holiday is to commemorate the date of the Uzbek Armed Forces establishment.
The establishment of the Uzbek Armed Forces was on 14 January 1992. This is because, after their independence from the Soviet Union, the Uzbek Parliament transferred the troops that were in the country under the jurisdiction of Uzbekistan. Their Armed Forces are the largest and strongest in Central Asia.
Uzbekistan shares borders with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan. The autonomous republic of Karakalpakstan is in the western third of the country.
Furthermore, the Soviet Government established the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic as a constituent republic of the USSR in 1924. Uzbekistan later declared its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
GEOGRAPHY OF UZBEKISTAN AND NATURAL RESOURCES
It has a total area of 447,400 sq km, out of it 425,400 sq km is of land and 22,000 sq km is of the sea. Its climate is mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in the east.
Uzbekistan has a variety of natural resources like natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, and molybdenum. 62.6% of the territory is agricultural land and almost 52% is permanent pasture.
Regarding the water resources, they share the Aral Sea with Kazakhstan but it mostly dried up; Uzbekistan also has the Syr Darya, which they share with Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan. The other river that Uzbekistan has is the Amu Darya river mouth, shared with Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan.
Most of the Uzbeks are concentrated in the Fergana Valley, in the eastern arm of the country, although the south has a good amount of population; the other parts of the country are sparsely populated.
They suffer from several natural hazards like earthquakes; floods; landslides or mudslides; avalanches; droughts. Uzbekistan has a population of 30,842,796 as estimated in 2021. Regarding the ethnicity of the population, around 83.8% are Uzbeks, the rest are Tajiks 4.8%, Kazakhs 2.5%, Russians 2.3%, Karakalpaks 2.2%, Tatars 1.5%, and others.
The official language is Uzbek (official) 74.3%. Other languages are Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%. Furthermore, regarding religion, 88% of the population is Muslim from the Sunni branch, and the rest are Eastern Orthodox 9%, and others 3%.
45.68% of the Uzbeks fall within the range of 25-54 years, and the next biggest age range is one of 0-14 years with 23.19%. Then regarding the life expectancy at birth is much higher in women as they have an expectancy of 78. On the other side, the men have an expectancy of nearly 72.
Independence Day from the Soviet Union in 1991 turned to be a National Holiday for Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan adopted a new constitution in 1992 to replace the former Soviet one.
The new constitution formally established Uzbekistan as a republic and provided legislative, executive, and also judicial branches of government, dominated by a strong executive.
The government has the right of restricting personal liberties in certain circumstances. The country is divided into 12 provinces, 1 autonomous republic, and 1 city. Regarding legislation, Uzbekistan follows a civil law system, and the president recently introduced several amendments.
Furthermore, those amendments were to the criminal code, criminal procedure code, and code of administrative responsibility. Shavkat Mirziyoyev is the President and Chief of State of Uzbekistan, and Abdulla Aripov is the Prime Minister and the head of the government.
Furthermore, their legislative branch is a bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis that consists of Senate or Senat, and a Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi. The last branch is judicial, and in Uzbekistan, this one is made up of the Supreme Court, Constitutional Court.
Uzbekistan has three types of subordinate courts, which are the regional, district, city, and also town courts. Their national symbols and colors are khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green.
UZBEK CULTURAL LITERATURE HERITAGE
Furthermore, over the centuries Uzbekistan has produced great scholars, poets, and writers. One example is the scholar and encyclopaedist al-Bīrūnī, who lived in the 11th century. Al-Bīrūnī produced a series of geographic works about India and a wide range of writings in the natural sciences and humanities.
Another example is the astronomer and mathematician Ulūgh Beg, who founded a famous observatory in Samarkand, during the 15th century. During that same century, there was the scholar, poet, and writer ʿAlī Shīr Navāʾī who greatly advanced Turkic-language literature and was also a talented artist and composer.
In the Jadid Era, the modern poets, and prose writers included Abdalrauf Fitrat, Sadriddin Ayni, and Abdullah Qadiri, each of whom was bilingual in Uzbek and Tajik. Most of these writers died during the Russian Civil War, or during Stalin’s purges.
Then in 1980, there was Asqad Mukhtar whose Socialist Realist novel Apä singillär can be found in English and other languages. Mukhtar and other writers encouraged the creative efforts of younger Uzbek poets and authors; like Razzaq Abdurashid, Abduqahhar Ibrahim, Jamal Kamal, and Erkin Wahid of the 1930s.
In the 1940s we can find Rauf Parfi, Halima Khudayberdiy, Muhammad Ali, Sharaf Bashbek, Mamadali Mahmud.
MUSIC AND ARCHITECTURE IN UZBEKISTAN
Musical tradition throughout southern Central Asia provides a distinctive classical form of composition in the great cycles of maqoms. Those maqoms were handed down from master performers to apprentices.
Moreover, Uzbekistan has several monuments that are part of its national architectural tradition. Those are the mausoleum of the Sāmānid ruler Ismāʿīl I (9th and 10th centuries) in Bukhara, the great mosques and mausoleums of Samarkand, constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries, and others.
ANCIENT HISTORY OF UZBEKISTAN
There are signs that humans lived in the territory that is now Uzbekistan as early as the Paleolithic Period. That means some 55,000 to 70,000 years ago. The territory was home to states of Bactria, Khwārezm, and Sogdiana that emerged around the Amu Darya river.
The Turkic Mongol tribes came from northwestern Siberia, where they believe the ethnonym Uzbek started from the admired Muslim ruler of the Golden Horde, Öz Beg. During the Khanship of Abūʾl-Khayr, the Uzbeks intervened to support several Central Asian Timurid princes.
However, several Uzbek tribes broke away and adopted the name Kazakh. The Uzbek Ming tribe, imperial in ambition, founded a new dynasty in Kokand about 1710 as the Ashtarkhanids faltered.
UZBEKISTAN DURING THE SOVIET RULE AND INDEPENDENCE
Bukhara and Khiva became Russian protectorates after the invasion, Kokand joined them in 1875; completing the Russian conquest of Uzbek territory. That is how the region became part of the Russian province of Turkistan.
The instability came to Turkistan with the Russian Revolution of 1917, where the Muslims convened a National Congress in Kokand and established an autonomous government under Mustafa Chokayev. That government was liquidated in 1918 by the Red Forces.
That action generated the Basmachi Revolt. In 1924 Karakalpakstan and Uzbekistan arose as ethnically designated territories within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Uzbekistan received the status of the constituent republic of the U.S.S.R. Karakalpakstan was transferred to the Uzbek S.S.R. in 1936.
After the independence, Uzbekistan adopted a new constitution, flag, currency, and national anthem. Later Uzbekistan supported the U.S. government’s campaign in Afghanistan, allowing U.S. forces to use an Uzbek airbase beginning in 2001.
In September 2016 Karimov died, and he left the long-serving prime minister Shavkat Mirziyoyev as interim president. Mirziyovev took action to open the economy and improve its relations with the international community.
To do this, Mirziyovev’s policies lifted many barriers to trade, allowed the currency to float, and courted foreign investment. He also released political prisoners and tolerated protests, and reversed the opposition towards the construction of the hydroelectric Rogun Dam.
Registan Plaza, the mausoleum Gur-e Amir, the tombs and mausoleums of Shah-i-Zinda, the Bibi-Khanym Mosque, the Kalan Mosque, the palace of Arq de Bujara, the Chorsu Bazaar; the Mausoleum Minarete de Kalyan, the Ismail Samani Mausoleum, the Chor Minor Madrassah (Mausoleum) are some of the most popular attractions of Uzbekistan.
The Sherdor Madrassah (Mausoleum), the Kalta Minor Minaret (Mausoleum), the Bolo Hauz Mosque, the State Museum of the Timurids, the Museum of Applied Arts, the Tower of Tashkent, the Siyob Bazaar, and the Charvak Reservoir are other interesting destinations to visit Uzbekistan.
New Year (January 1st): Here the symbol of New Year is the Grandfather a frost and the Snow Maiden, and also the dressed-up fur tree. people at this time celebrate and widely mark this holiday with natives and close behind the covered elegant table. The Uzbeks present each other gifts and surprises.
Day of defenders of the Native land (January, 14th): As mentioned before to commemorate the date when the Uzbek Armed Forces were established.
Woman’s Day (March, 8th): On March, 8th also it is known as “ Mothers day”. the female holiday coincides with the first days of spring as the beauty of the woman compared to a gentle flower. Men give this day to the mothers, wives, and daughters flowers and gifts with sincere wishes.
Navruz (March, 21st): This is the most ancient national holiday Navruz (“Holiday Navruz”), in translation with Persian Navruz designates “new day”. considered the beginning of the new year. March, 21st is a day a spring equinox. Furthermore, Uzbekistan celebrates this holiday at the beginning of spring when all plants and trees blossom. At the beginning of this holiday; many Uzbek families prepare national dishes such as Sumalak, Halim, Somsa from the plant, Pilov, and others.
Day of memory and honor (May, 9th): In 1999 Uzbekistan opened the majestic Square of Memory in the capital on 9th May and since then Day of memory and honor on May, 9th is celebrated.
Uzbekistan celebrates this holiday in honor of the memory of our compatriots who during centuries heroically, self-denyingly protected our native territory, its freedom, and independence, peaceful life of our people.
On this day, Uzbeks glorify those people who took part in fights against fascism, showed heroism, and sacrificed a life in the name of protection of the Native land.
POLITICAL AND UNIVERSAL HOLIDAYS
Day of independence (September, 1st): The main national holiday of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the Day of Independence. Furthermore, representatives of the various nations living in Uzbekistan, despite nationality, religion, the social status all actively celebrate a holiday in each street, the area, and also the people living in mahallas and regions.
Representatives of art arrange various shows in the areas, and also in parks of the city. Many foreign visitors and tourists participate in various unforgettable traditional entertainments and representations.
Day of teachers and instructors (October, 1st): “Domlo”, “Muallim”, “Ustoz” – these words during many centuries with gratitude and respect the pupils received from the teachers not only knowledge on subject matters said, but also manuals about the valid attitude to people, love to the Native land, about high morals and also spirituality. Then students give flowers and gifts to the professors.
The Constitution Day (December, 8th): This holiday is celebrated across all Uzbekistan, and carries out various actions, devoted to the constitution day.
Boysun Bakhori (Folk Festival): held in the mountainous Boysun District, Surkhandarya Province. In Boysun ritual songs and also dances, performances of the akyn narrators of folk tales and legends continue their natural life. It is here that a thousand years ago akyn narrators composed the heroic epic “Alpamysh”.
in 2001 the UNESCO List of “Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity” included the Boysun District. Every year the participants of ‘Boysun’s Spring’ come from scores of countries. The festival attracts a lot of professional and amateur folklorists.
Moreover, during the festival, the tourists can travel in time and also learn the ancient secrets of fire-worshippers rituals and shaman cults. Furthermore, the tourists can learn the life of the distinctive region that preserved culture and traditions.
The international music festival “Shark Taronalari”: Furthermore, this festival has become very popular and prestigious. For the first time, it was held in Samarkand in 1997 on the initiative of Islam Karimov, Uzbekistan’s President.
Furthermore, folk music performers from 29 countries took part in it. The fifth festival held in August 2005 attracted a record number of participants and visitors from over 50 countries.