Washington DC, 28 April 2023 (TDI): World Bank has launched World Development Report 2023. The report is titled “Migrants, Refugees, and Societies.”
According to the report, there are 184 million migrants plus refugees. This 184 million makes up almost 2.4% of the world population.
Almost half of them are living in low or middle-income countries.
The World Development Report highlights strategies for better migration to support development and sustainable growth.
The report is divided into nine chapters. An integrated framework is proposed. This framework maximizes the development impact on both destination and origin countries and on migrants and refugees themselves.
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The framework draws part of it from labor economics and international law and the rest of it from the “match and motive matrix.”
The “match and motive matrix” focuses on two factors. Firstly, how closely migrants’ skills and attributes match the needs of destination countries. Secondly, their underlying motive.
This “match and motive matrix” approach enables policymakers to distinguish between different types of movements. And also to design migration policy for each.
The report also emphasizes the importance of international cooperation in this regard.
The main points of the report are:
Migrants or refugees-centered approach
The report focuses on the approach towards migrants or refugees upon entering a new country. Once they become citizens, they face the same opportunities and challenges as any other citizen, sometimes even with added difficulties encountered by national minorities.
There is a need to recognize the complexity as migration will become increasingly necessary at all income levels in the coming years due to demographic divergences and climate change.
Appropriate Policy Responses
To identify appropriate policy responses, various types of movements must be distinguished. If people bring skills and attributes that match the needs of their destination country the net gain maximizes.
Obligations under International Law
The motives underlying movements determine destination countries’ obligations under international law. Providing protection to refugees both financially and socially and respecting migrants’ rights and dignity are crucial aspects of international obligations.
The report also proposes that Governments in origin countries should make labour migration an explicit part of their development strategy, while governments in destination countries should use “strong match” migration to meet their labour needs.
Finally, the report proposes the use of bilateral cooperation to organize regional and global responses. Also indicates the development of financial instruments and listening to policy debates.