Dodoma, 10 December 2021 (TDI): The United Republic of Tanzania marks its 60th independence day on 9th December 2021. Tanzania, also known as the United Republic of Tanzania, is a country located in the East of Africa.

It is situated south of the Equator and bordered by the Indian Ocean in the East. In the North, its neighbors are Kenya and Uganda. Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in the west, while Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the South. Also, it shares borders with Comoros and Seychelles.


The country occupies an area of 945,087 km². Furthermore, with its capital in Dodoma, Tanzania has a current population of about 62,164,023. The population of Tanzania is projected to reach 71,992,000 by 2030.


The climate of mainland Tanzania can be divided into four principal climatic and topographic areas, which are the hot and humid coastal lowlands of the Indian Ocean shoreline. The hot and arid zone of the broad central plateau. The high inland mountain and lake region of the northern border, where Mount Kilimanjaro is situated.

Lastly, the highlands of the northeast and southwest, the climates of which range from tropical to temperate. In Tanzania, rainfall is highly seasonal.


Prior to the scramble for Africa, Tanzania had trade relations with Portugal, Oman, and the Arabs. The scramble and partition of Africa led to the control of East Africa by Germany. Germany’s territories were known as German East Africa.

The first war started in 1914 and ended in 1917. During the war, British and Belgian troops occupied most of German East Africa. Germany was defeated in the war, and the League of Nations made Tanganyika(Tanzania) a British mandate and Ruanda-Urundi (later Rwanda and Burundi) a Belgian mandate.

The harsh treatment of the Tanzanians by the colonists resulted in revolts and the quest for independence. In 1954, Julius Nyerere and Oscar Kambona transformed the Tanganyika African Association (founded in 1929) into the more politically oriented Tanganyika African National Union (TANU).

TANU won the general elections of 1958–60. Tanganyika became independent on December 9, 1961, Julius Nyerere became its first prime minister. Tanganyika joined the Commonwealth of Nations after gaining its independence from Greta Britain.

On April 26, 1964, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to be the United Republic of Tanzania. Julius Nyerere became the new country’s first president. Abeid Amani Karume, the head of Zanzibar’s government and leader of the dominant Afro-Shirazi party (ASP), became Tanzania’s first vice president. Despite being united with the mainland, Zanzibar retained considerable independence in internal affairs.

System of Government

The head of State and Government is the President who is Samia Suluhu Hassan. Tanzania practices a unitary form of Government with one legislative house.


Tanzania is divided roughly into thirds between practitioners of folk religion, Christians, and Muslims (many of whom live on the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar). Currently, the largest religious denomination in Tanzania is Roman Catholic Christianity, followed by Protestant Christianity, Sunni Islam, and Shia Islam. Tanzania has the largest animal population density out of any country in the world. There are more animals per square mile of land in Tanzania than in any other country.

Currency & Language 

The currency of the country is the Tanzanian shilling (TZS). The two official languages spoken in Tanzania are Swahili and English. Likewise, the Arabic language is spoken in Tanzania widely spoken in Zanzibar.

Minerals & Tribes

The main minerals in Tanzania are Pozzolana, Salt, Gypsum, Kaolinite, Silver ore, Copper, Phosphate, Tanzanite, Tin, Graphite, Bauxite, and Gold. Moreover, there are about 120 African tribal groups in Tanzania.


Soccer is a favorite sport in Tanzania. It is one of the widely played and most supported sports throughout the region. Like many other African nations, Tanzanians are also inclined towards football.

Lakes & Mountains

There are three major lakes in Tanzania. The Lakes are Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and Lake Nyassa (Lake Malawi). Other major rivers in Tanzania are; the Ruvuma, the Rufiji, the Wami, and the Pangani.  The largest is the Rufiji River. As a result of many rivers, mainland Tanzania is rich in hydroelectricity potential.


Moreover, Tanzania is home to the famed Mount Kilimanjaro, The tallest mountain in Africa, with its summit at 19,340 feet (5,895 meters).


Tanzania is home to large herds of hoofed animals—​wildebeests, zebras, giraffes, buffalo, gazelles, elands, dik-diks, and kudu. These animals are mostly found in the country’s numerous game parks. Likewise, predators include hyenas, wild dogs, and the big cats—lions, leopards, and cheetahs. Crocodiles and hippopotamuses are common on riverbanks and lakeshores.

Besides, other animals include Chimpanzees, Rhinoceroses, and elephants. Also, there are nearly 1,500 varieties of birds and numerous species of snakes and lizards in Tanzania.

National parks

The parks in Tanzania are the Gombe National Park along Lake Tanganyika. Serengeti National Park, the Selous Game Reserve, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, and Kilimanjaro National Park.

Moreover, the Gombe Stream National Park is home to over 1.7 million wildebeests and about a million other animals. Serengeti National Park is Tanzania’s oldest and most popular park for tourists.


Fertile soil is present in Tanzania. This makes it suitable for Agriculture. Agriculture in Tanzania represents almost 30 percent of the country’s GDP, with three-quarters of the country’s workforce involved in this sector.

Thus, agriculture is the largest and most important sector of the Tanzanian economy. In 2020, the GDP of Tanzania grew by 4.8%, reaching $64.4 billion versus $60.8 billion in 2019. This growth made it the 2nd largest economy in East Africa after Kenya and the 7th largest in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Furthermore, agricultural commodities produced in Tanzania are Corn, Wheat, Rice, mangoes, oranges, pineapples, passion fruits, bananas, avocados, jack-fruits, papayas, peaches, pears, guavas, grapes, tomatoes, okra and chilies, Cashew nut, Cotton, Sugar cane, Leather, Cassava, Sweet potato, peanut, sorghum, sunflower seed, sesame seed, Tobacco, Orange, etc.

Some of these agricultural commodities like Tobacco, Fish products, Coffee, Cashew, Cotton, and Sisal are exported.


Industries are a growing component of the Tanzanian economy. The industrial sector contributes immensely to the GDP of Tanzania. Likewise, the industries include mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity and natural gas, water supply, and construction. The majority of the country’s mineral export revenue comes from gold.

Moreover, the political environment in Tanzania is very stable, thus, very safe for foreign investments. Also, the Government has taken many steps like redrawing tax codes, floating the exchange rate, licensing foreign banks, and creating an investment promotion center to cut red tape to encourage and promote foreign investments.

In conclusion, it is worth saying that Tanzania is a growing economy with a lot to offer to the world economy. From natural resources to growing industries, the United Republic of Tanzania has explored various opportunities for future growth and development.